2019-nCoV/COVID-19 Coronavirus

//2019-nCoV/COVID-19 Coronavirus

SARS-CoV Genome

2019-nCoV belongs to lineage B betacoronavirus and shares high sequence identity with that of bat or human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) and bat SARS-like coronavirus (SL-CoV)

The genome of 2019-nCoV has also been reported to be 96% identical to the bat coronavirus. The nearest neighbors of the 2019-nCoV isolates from China and USA were two Bat SARS-like coronaviruses.

The nCoV contains at least six open reading frames (ORFs) and many other accessory genes like other CoVs.

The structural proteins namely spike (S), an envelope protein (E), membrane protein (M) and nucleocapsid (N) are located at the one-third 3′ terminal of the genome. In addition to these genes, there are several accessory proteins which help in virus replication. The S gene is one of the most important genes for receptor binding and host specificity

A hallmark of these proteins is the presence of an N-terminal surface unit (termed S1 in the context of CoV S proteins), which harbors the receptor binding domain and a C-terminal transmembrane unit (termed S2 in the context of CoV S proteins), which contains the functional elements required for membrane fusion: a fusion peptide, heptad repeats and a transmembrane domain.